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Going Number Two in the Woods

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Dig a Cathole

If there isn’t an accessible pit toilet, if there’s soil on the ground, and if the area isn’t heavily used (like near a trail or picnic area), it’s time to start digging a cathole.  Ideally, the hole should be six to eight inches deep, four to six inches across, and 200 feet from any water source, trail, or camp. (It helps to buy an inexpensive trowel; we like the GSI Outdoors Cathole Sanitation Trowel for $5.)

Burying your toilet paper with your waste is acceptable—according to Leave No Trace ( — but you get extra green points for carrying it out (pack an extra zip-top bag with your TP).   An environmental impact study of how quickly toilet paper broke down after being buried in catholes in Tasmania showed that, after six months, toilet paper decay was “well advanced” in most environments. Areas that were driest, warmest, and least acidic allowed for the most decay. Also, unbleached toilet paper breaks down more quickly than bleached toilet paper.  The microorganisms and bacteria that live in your feces may not disappear as quickly as the toilet paper. Some studies have shown that certain pathogens associated with feces were found near the cathole a year later. That’s why it’s important to thoroughly cover the cathole when you’re finished, minimizing the possibility that another human—or animal—will come into contact with your waste and spread it.


Pack it Out

If there isn’t enough soil to dig a cathole—or if the crag is heavily used—you should pack out your waste (think gallon Ziploc bags).  This goes for snow and sensitive alpine environments, too. Poop that is left in the snow will either show up again during the spring melt, or it will live on for decades—or longer—if the snow is permanent and meltwater doesn’t carry it to your nearest alpine water source. Heavily used crags have bag systems—such as Restop, Biffy Bag, and WAG bags—available at the trailhead, or you can pick some up online (whennaturecalls. com or or at your local gear shop. Stash one in your pack and leave it there in case of emergencies.  Waste bags are also necessary for big wall climbing, but be sure to throw them away in an appropriate trash receptacle.  Busy areas might have trash cans in the parking lot, but don’t overflow the can with dozens of poop bags. If you can wait, take it home and throw it away there.

Do your business on the inner parts, wrap everything up tight (including toilet paper) and place it in the outer receptacle. Adding a bit of kitty litter to the bottom of the outer container will help control odor and absorb moisture. When you’re done, throw away all the innards and rinse the outer can/tube/bag thoroughly.



No waste bag? Too rocky? No pit toilet? It’s time to improvise. We’ve all found ourselves in a not-ideal pooping position when we’re out for a climb. But don’t just go under a rock and call it good. Instead, do your best to follow as many of these four principles outlined by Leave No Trace as you can.


  1. Minimize the spread of disease by lowering the chance that an animal, insect, or person might come into contact with your waste.
  2. Go far, far away from water sources to prevent pollution.
  3. Hide your waste to avoid aesthetic issues—no one wants to see evidence of feces.
  4. Encourage decomposition by covering it with any available dirt or plant matter.


Don’t Smear!

A decade or so ago, the smear method of backcountry pooping was recommended when digging a cathole wasn’t plausible. It was especially recommended in alpine and desert environments, where the harsh, dry, windy weather was thought to speed decomposition. But since the early 2000s, the smear has largely been abandoned by organizations such as Leave No Trace as a preferred method of meadow-muffin disposal. It wasn’t practical to expect people to follow the proper smearing protocol, which required spreading feces into a thin veneer on a rock or the ground. (Think icing on a cake, according to Ben Lawhon, LNT’s education director.) Scientific studies have now shown that it takes about four months for this “icing” to break down.